TEACHING JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT TO WRITE RECOUNT TEXT THROUGH PICTURE SEQUENCE
THE FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
MAHAPUTRA MUHAMMAD YAMIN UNIVERSITY
A. Background of the Problem
English is an international language because it is a tool of communication among people in different countries in the world. By using English, people can communicate and cooperates with people from different countries in many aspects like economic, politic, education, social and culture.
There are four skills that should be learned by the students in learning English, there are listening, reading, speaking and writing. But not only that, English also have some components; grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary and spelling.
Writing is one of the skills in learning English. It is one of the important subjects that students should be learned. They are not only able to read the English books or speak English well, but also be able to write, the students can express an ideas or feeling in writing form, the students should be able to produce sentences and develop it into paragraph. The students should be pay attention to the dictions are used and should be able to arrange his or her ideas or feeling in a good arrangement. the others point the students should pay attention to the rhetorical structure of the text in writing.
Based on writer’s observation at VIII grade of MTsN Solok. the writers found some problems. The students lazy to express their ideas or feeling because they are low of vocabulary. They do not know the distinguishing among the texts because they are lack of practice writing in daily activities. They are less motivation because the teacher do not use interest media and technique in teaching process.
Based on the curriculum of KTSP, the teaching writing is done through twelve genres. They are spoof, recount, report, analytical exposition, news item, anecdote, narrative, procedure, descriptive, hortatory exposition, explanation and discussion.
Based on writer’s experience, recount text assumed as a new text in Junior High School. It is difficult for students in writing. Writing recount text is un familiar for student also it is not similar writing the others text, they have distinguishing of generic structure and language feature among them. Student do not have background knowledge about recount text. It make them confuse to finish recount text. Students still find difficulties to use the correct grammar and tense. Teacher also find difficulties to finding the media in technique to teach recount text. How to teach this subject that can not makes students are not boring and interesting to learn.
Based on the problem above, the teacher should be able to find new media or meaningful activities that can support in teaching process. To make students are not boring and interesting in writing, one alternative that could be used to overcome this problem is using picture sequence. The writer interested to using picture sequence in writing recount text because it is always interesting for young learners. By using picture sequence teaching recount text becomes more enjoyable.
B. Identification of the Problem
Based on the background of the problem above, the problem can be identified as follow: first, the students still have low motivation to learn English. Second, the media that used by the teacher are uninteresting for students and it make the students are boring in learning process. Third, the student have difficult to distinguish among of genres, because they are lazy to practice every time.
C. Limitation of the Problem
There are many problems that have been identified. It is impossible for the writer to discuss on the whole problems. So in this paper the writer just focuses on using picture sequence in teaching writing in recount text. The writer hopes that picture sequence will be a good media in teaching writing especially recount text.
D. Formulation of the Problem
Based on the limitation of the problem above, the problem can be formulated as follow: How to use picture sequence to teach writing recount text for Junior High School?
E. Purpose of the Problem
The purpose of the writing this paper is to teach writing and to contribution for the teacher especially English teacher in teaching writing. They can use picture sequence as media to teach writing in recount text for Junior High School. So that, the students will enjoy in learning writing, especially recount text.
Beside that, this paper is also purposed to fulfill one requirements to finish strata one (S.1) of English Department, Faculty Teacher Training and Pedagogy of Mahaputra Muhammad Yamin University.
F. Definition of the Key Terms
a. Writing is one of the skill in language that sound be learned by the Junior High School students to express their idea, feeling, through into written form.
b. Recount text is a text that is written to telling an activity or story in the past tense.
c. Picture sequence is one of media that can be use in teaching writing in recount text for Junior High School.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Concept of Writing
Writing is one of language skill is used to express ideas, tell message in behavior and sharing information on the written form. This idea is supported by Clliford (1991: 42) states through writing; learher discover new idea and ways of conveying and organizing these, He adds a process through which meaning is created. In addition, Silvia (1991: 50) states that writing is not only reflects our thinking, but also help to create new thoughts.
In the same opinion, Leki (1991:8) says writing is carefully controlled, the students see only correct language learner try to write what they think and they want to say. This idea support by Al-Issa (1991:38) states that writing is the most difficult skill to perform. The producing a clear and coherent text with few or no mistakes is difficult.
According to Bryne (1995:43) “writing is transforming out thoughts into language, it is a very complex skill that requires both physical and mental activity on the part of the writer. He adds writing is not easy nor spontaneous”. Moreover Walter (1995:43) states “writing is the last and perhaps most difficult skill students learn if they ever do”.
In general Nunan (2003:88) defines “writing is the physical act of committing words or ideas to some medium. He adds writing can express an idea or feeling and thinking into statements and paragraph that will be clear to a matter.
Based on the definition above, it can be concluded that writing is complex skill used by people to communicate in written from to express their idea, thought, opinion and belief. Writing skill should be acquired by students in order to use English perfectly.
2.2 The Nature of Recount Text
Recount is reconstruction of something happened in the past. Many experts propose the concept of recount. The first, Derewianka (1990:14) defines that A recount is the unfolding of a sequence of events over time and the purpose is to tell what happened. It sets the scene who, what, where and when (orientation) it recounts events as they occurred (events ) and has closing statement (re-orientation) it is use in past tense and showed as chronological order.
The same opinion, Gerot in Wignell (1994) explained that recount as a text that to tell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining. Recount text has three schematic structure: orientation, e vents , re-orientation. The orientation provides the setting and introduce participants. The event tell what happened in what sequence. Re-orientation optional closure of events. Significant lexicogrammatical features:
a. Focus on specific participants
b. Use of material process
c. Circumstance of time and place
d. Use past tense
e. Focus on temporal sequence
According to Sudarwati and Grace (2005:61) states that recount text is a text to tell something that happened in the past. The purpose of a recount is to give the readers listeners what occurred in a series of event and where or when it happened. This idea Support by Siswanto (2005: 201) states that recount is text that tells someone past experience in chronological order and uses simple past tense. Recount text has three main parts: orientation, series of events, re-orientation. The orientation tells who was involved in the story, when, where and why the story happened. The series of events tell what are going on in the story. The re-orientation concludes the story.
Moreover Prayitno (2005:9) explains that recount text purposes are to tell readers what happened in the past through a sequence of events. The basis structure of a recount consists of three elements:
1. Orientation : who were involved in the story when, where
2. Events : tell what happened in chronological order
3. Re-orientation : conclusion on the experience
Language features of recount text :
1. The use of nouns and pronouns
2. The use of action verbs
3. The use of past tense
4. The use time conjunctions
5. The use of adverbs and adverb of phrases
Moreover, Wardiman and ell (2006) defines that a recount text is a text that telling the reader about one story, action or activity. Its goal is to entertaining or informing the reader. They also explained characteristic of recount text: (orientation) tells who involved, what happened, where the events took place, and when it happened. (events) tell what happened and what sequence. (re-orientation) consists of optional-closure of events/ending.
Based on the experts above, it can be concluded that recount text is a text that is written to telling an activity or story in the past.
2.3 Teaching Writing for Junior High School
In the English standard Competency Syllabus for Junior High School (2006:41) the student are expected to be able to communicate with accepted English either in oral or writing form. It s stated the competency with the students should have in learning writing in Junior High School. Students is to enable to create genres like descriptive, recount, procedure, report and narrative.
Based on curriculum of Junior High School, the recount text is a new text that should be learned, many students do not have knowledge about this text. It makes them a little confuse because they do not learned before, but now they should follow these generic structure, meanwhile they only write what they want, it is caused teacher should use media to teach recount text, for example through picture sequence.
2.4 Nature of Picture Sequence
Learning English needs more practices in every time activities because without it, students will not success in communicate to express their ideas, opinion, feeling. There are many activities that can be used by the students to teaching writing recount text. One of them is picture sequence.
Many experts propose the concept of picture sequence. First, Gerlach (1980:99) says that when the students can arrange some picture in sequence, that is ordering. They may order events, object or characteristic. Addition by Ur (1981:60) defines that task requires students to evaluate connected pieces of evidence and recognize causal, temporal or progressional relationships between them. Several picture are given to student and asked to put them into some sort of logical order. He adds if the items are complex and the criteria for ordering and each students is given one or two of the component ideas, which someone can describe or read out, not show.
Moreover, Silvia (1991:51) state that several picture that give for the student, the picture told about one story in sequence. The same opinion by Harmer (1991:42) state that when the student write based on the picture sequence, they can use to construct the story. Each of which is shown a picture from story sequence.
At last, Brown (2004:227) states a sequence of three or six pictures depicting a story, line can provide a suitable stimulus for written production. He also said that the pictures must be simple and unambiguous because an open-ended task at the selective level would give test takers too many options.
Based on the experts above it can be concluded that picture sequence is a series of photographs dealing with one subject. It may tell a story, present an event, describe a scene, reveal a person, or show how to do something. The most successful picture sequences create several visual images that contain emphasis and action.
Preparation is an important point that must be consider by the teacher before teaching. Without a good preparation, teaching English will not be successful. Before enter the class, teacher should prepare something. First, the media, it is very important for the teacher to select the media that she or he use in teaching. The selected of media will help the students to understand the materials. Second, the material, it is also important for teacher should prepare. The media and materials are designed to provide useful competence for writing. The material and media encourage students to develop their competence in writing.
3.2 Teacher Roles
In learning writing, the teacher has 3 roles, they are as facilitator, motivator and educator.
First, teacher as a facilitator. Teacher have to prepare and gives the facility which needed by students. So, the process of learning of knowledge will be interesting.
Second, teacher as a motivator. Teacher can be motivator in the classroom. Teacher should be a trainer and to build up the concentration of the students. In order to they feel having fun. Also they enjoy in learning process.
Third, teacher as educator. In the classroom, the teacher do not only teach the some material. But also, she/he ca help the students to increase their knowledge in learning process especially in English written.
3.3 Classroom Procedure
There are three parts in this procedure, they are pre-teaching activity, whilst-teaching activity, and post teaching activity.
3.3.1 Pre-Teaching Activity
For pre-teaching activities, teacher come into classroom and greet the whole class. After that, she/he gives brainstorming to know background knowledge of students which relate about the topic today.
3.3.2 Whilst-Teaching Activity
a. The teacher stick picture sequence on whiteboard, and ask the students to notice it.
b. Question-answer about the picture
c. Picture discussion, teacher and students discuss about the picture sequence.
d. The students try to present in the form written in make sentences into paragraph.
e. The teacher should guide the student to making recount text as good as possible.
f. The teacher check students’ correctness.
3.3.3 Post-Teaching Activity
For post teaching activities, the teacher gives explanation more about recount text. Then, the teacher give motivate or reinforcement to the students and they may discuss about a new picture sequence to make a new recount text, may be that can continue in next meeting.
3.4 Advantages of Using Picture Sequence In Writing Recount Text
There are advantages of using picture sequence in writing recount text. First, help the student to devote their imagination, student can analyze the picture that can make students easy to write recount text. Second, Picture will be interesting for student, as we know, picture is colorful, it make student interest and enjoy finish recount text and also picture tell complex story, so the students motivate to finish recount text.
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTION
It is very difficult to write English correctly because structure of Indonesian language are different from English language. But, there are many way to improve the students writing skill. How to make them interested in writing and enjoying that tack? For example, using picture at Junior High School. They can finish recount text after they had seem of picture. The teacher guides them to finish the recount text.
Teaching recount text in writing through picture is effective way to improve students is writing skill. The students can easy to make recount text after they had not and analyzed the picture. So, they do not worried about the topic in writing.
Based on the conclusion above, the writer wants to give some suggestion for English teacher. First, English teacher who teach at Junior High School should be more creative in finding media that they can apply in learning process especially in teaching recount text. Second, the teacher should be able to find many interesting picture to encourage the students in learning English. At last, in order to teach recount text in writing more communicatively, the teacher should be able to motivate the students to involve actively in learning English.